MDMA (or “ecstasy“) is a psychoactive drug commonly used at dance clubs, music festivals, and othersocial events. Known for its euphoric, empathogenic effects, it has become a symbol of the raveculture, causing some to consider it a “club drug“. MDMA acts on some of the same reward pathwaysin the brain as certain other stimulants and drug of abuse, leading some to consider it a “party drug“. Inaddition to its popular recreational use, MDMA is becoming increasingly accepted as a potentialpsychopharmaceutical and is being investigated as a possible treatment for anxiety and PTSD. MDMAworks by increasing the activity of three neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine, andserotonin. This produces both psychological and physical effects, such as feelings of pleasure,emotional warmth and closeness, mental stimulation, and distortions in perception of time and space.
MDMA involves an increase in the production of three chemicals in the brain – dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin – which leads to a heightened sense of awareness and pleasure.
- Dopamine—produces increased energy/activity and acts in the reward system to reinforce behaviors
- Norepinephrine—increases heart rate and blood pressure, which are particularly risky for people with heart and blood vessel problems
- Serotonin—affects mood, appetite, sleep, and other functions. It also triggers hormones that affect sexual arousal and trust. The release of large amounts of serotonin likely causes the emotional closeness, elevated mood, and empathy felt by those who use MDMA.
Other health effects include:
- blurred vision
- involuntary teeth clenching
- muscle cramping
As with other drugs, the amount of time that MDMA remains detectable in a person’s system depends on a number of factors, including the person’s age, weight, and metabolism, as well as the amount ingested. Generally, MDMA can be detected in the body for up to three to four days after use.
The main metabolite of MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), can be detected in the body for up to four to eight days after use. Blood tests are the most sensitive tests for detecting MDMA, and can detect it within hours of use. Urine tests can detect MDMA up to three days after use. Hair tests can detect MDMA up to three months after use. The exact amount of time that MDMA remains in a person’s system depends on the amount taken, as well as a person’s individual body chemistry. If a person has taken an especially large dose, it could remain in their system longer than the usual three to four days. As well, regular users of MDMA may have the drug stored in their system for longer than a person who has only taken it once.
It is important to remember that body temperatures can continue to climb after the effects of MDMA wear off, even if the user has stopped taking the drug. Medical attention should be sought if someone begins to experience high body temperatures, dizziness, nausea, or rapid heartbeat. These are all possible indications of overheating and should not be taken lightly.
Clinical trials have reported craving and addictive behavior for MDMA while others have reported no such issues. Some users can take MDMA occasionally without reporting adverse effects, while others find themselves facing greater challenges when attempting to quit. Overall, research suggests that MDMA can be addictive, with the drug’s addictiveness varying from user to user depending on individual biochemistry and motivations.
Some people report signs of addiction, including the following withdrawal symptoms:
- loss of appetite
- trouble concentrating
There is currently no specific medical treatment for MDMA addiction. Many people have turned to behavioral therapy to treat their addiction. Behavioral therapy can help individuals identify triggers for using MDMA, learn better coping mechanisms for difficult situations, and avoid further drug use. Studies suggest that behavioral therapy may help reduce cravings and relapse rates, although more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment. As a whole, the best approach to treating MDMA addiction is through a combination of behavioral therapy and medications such as antidepressants, which can help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety that are often associated with MDMA use. Do not take this as medical advice, please see a certified professional.
Ketamine typically stays in the body between 1.5 to 1.8 days. It takes approximately 4 to 5 hours for the effects of a single dose to be eliminated. The body’s metabolic rate, age, weight, and health status can affect how quickly ketamine is metabolized and eliminated from the body. Generally, Plasma concentrations of Ketamine are typically low 3 hours after a single dose, and subsequently undetectable 10 hours after a single dose. The effects of higher doses of ketamine can remain in the body significantly longer. For chronic or heavy users, ketamine can remain in the body for up to 7 days or more.
Ketamine has a short half-life and is typically metabolized by the body within 24 to 48 hours. The effect of ketamine is rapid, usually taking less than 5 minutes to take effect. The effects typically last about an hour, although they can last as long as 8 hours in some cases. When taken as a recreational drug, the effects of ketamine vary depending on the dose, with a peak dosage tending to last 2 to 4 hours and a lower dosage lasting 1 to 2 hours.
Ketamine feels like a dream. People often describe it as a dissociative anesthetic, with feelings of floating and disconnection from their physical body. It can also produce intense emotional reactions, vivid visuals, and a heightened sense of empathy and openness to ideas. Each experience of ketamine is unique, but it typically causes an initial euphoria followed by a period of calmness and deep relaxation.
Ketamine is an anesthetic that is typically administered by injection intravenously or intramuscularly. Low doses of ketamine can be found in nasal sprays, oral formulations, and intravenous (IV) infusions, however, these should only be used under the direction of a physician. Ketamine can also be administered orally or intranasally as an off-label form of treatment for depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Additionally, recreational users may snort or take ketamine orally as a hallucinogenic drug.
Ketamine has a very bitter taste, similar to that of a strong licorice aroma. It has an unpleasant, chemical-like aftertaste and generally leaves a dry feeling in your mouth. Some people liken it to the taste of old pennies.
LSD is a powerful psychoactive drug, so its effects can last for quite some time. On average, LSD lasts around 8-12 hours if taken orally, but this can vary depending on the person. It is best to take it on an empty stomach for maximum effect, as food can slow down its effects. The peak effects of LSD usually last between 4-6 hours and it can take up to 24 hours for the effects to completely wear off. Depending on how much was taken, learners may experience lingering effects for up to two days afterwards.
No, LSD is not considered a physically addictive substance. However, it can be psychologically addictive, meaning that a person may become dependent on the euphoric feelings and altered states of consciousness it produces. People may crave LSD because it can temporarily provide a sense of euphoria, insight, and connection. It is important to note, however, that consequences of long-term use can include psychiatric issues such as anxiety, psychosis, and suicidal ideation.
By understanding how to store LSD and minimizing the impact of these conditions, you can significantly extend the shelf life of LSD. The most reliable method of storing LSD is in an airtight container, such as a pill bottle, pressure resistant tube or glass vial, far away from any sources of heat, including direct sunlight. Keeping the drugs in a cool, dark and dry place is key, and a refrigerator is ideal. It is important to store the drugs away from any other substances, to avoid cross-contamination. Keeping the LSD away from any other items with an odor is also important, as LSD can easily pick up odors and tastes present in its environment.